Tạp chí KTĐN số 101

A STATE-OF-THE-ART REVIEW OF TOURIST DECISION-MAKING LITERATURE

A STATE-OF-THE-ART REVIEW OF TOURIST DECISION-MAKING LITERATURE 

Dung Le[1] and Thai Phong Le[2]

Abstract

Decision-making theories in tourism can be classified into three groups based on their underlined assumptions: rational choice, affect-driven and dual-process theories. Rational choice theories are the dominant framework in many fields including economics, political science, finance, marketing and tourism. Consumers are considered as “rational-decision-makers” who evaluate available options by rational thinking. In contrast, the affect-driven theories assume that tourists are hedonic decision-makers and their choice is influenced and guided by affective factors (i.e., emotions, feelings). Dual-process theories reconcile these two opposite approaches by proposing a dual-system of decision-making: System 1 related to automatic, emotional, non-conscious process, and System 2 involving rational thinking. This review paper provides a general picture of how tourism decision-making literature has been developed with a focus on the latest advancement, dual-system theories. Tourism marketers may find this paper beneficial in understanding tourist behaviours, in particular, tourists’ destination choice. Traditional marketing focusing only on rational factors (comparative messages) can be a dead-end approach, experiential marketing has become the new trends. By advancing our knowledge of tourist decision-making, this paper provides useful guidelines for tourism marketers in designing tourist experiences and promoting tourism destinations.

Key words: Tourist behaviour, decision-making, dual-system, destination choice, marketing

Date of receipt: 24th Oct.2017; Date of revision: 15th Mar.2018; Date of approval: 1st Apr.2018

 

1. Introduction

How tourists choose a destination for their future vacation is one of the key questions in tourism research. Over the past six decades, tourism has experienced continued expansion and diversification, to become one of the largest and fastest-growing economic sectors in the world. The intense competition between traditional and emerging tourism destinations requires tourism marketers to improve their knowledge about the tourist decision-making process. Understanding how tourists decide and plan their trips results in important implications for future product development and promotional schemes (Chen, 2003) as well as marketing strategies (Sirakaya & Woodside, 2005). There is a growing research base of theoretical and empirical studies on tourist destination choice and tourist decision-making over the last five decades (Smallman & Moore, 2010).

Tourism research remains dominated by the assumption of rational decision-making (Cohen, Prayag, & Moital, 2014; McCabe & Chen, 2015). The rational theories used in tourism decision-making research adopt one of three major approaches: the normative approach (utility theory), the prescriptive cognitive approach (the theory of reasoned action & the theory of planned behaviour) and the structured process approach (the choice-set model). However, rational decision-making models seem to be problematic in explaining how choices of experiential products such as vacations are made because they ignore affective factors (Jun & Vogt, 2013; Kwortnik & Ross, 2007; Lerner, Li, Valdesolo, & Kassam, 2015; Loewenstein & Lerner, 2003; McCabe & Chen, 2015).

In the 1980s, researchers started to explore how affective factors are involved in tourist decision-making (Holbrook, 1986; Holbrook & Hirschman, 1982; Litvin, 2008). People rely on their emotions when choosing hedonic products such as a pleasure vacation (Bechara, 2004; Mellers, Schwartz, & Ritov, 1999; Pham, 1998; Prayag, Khoo-Lattimore, & Sitruk, 2015; Schwarz, 2011; Zeelenberg, Nelissen, Breugelmans, & Pieters, 2008). The affect-driven theories clarify different mechanisms that affect influence consumer behaviours. The impact of emotions on consumer decision-making is explained by four influential theories including the feelings-as-information (Schwarz, 2011), the affect-priming (Forgas, 1995), the appraisal-tendencies (Lerner & Keltner, 2000) and the feeling-as-doing (Zeelenberg et al., 2008). In addition, anticipated emotions are supposed to guide consumer behaviour. Decisions are made to pursue positive anticipated emotions or avoid anticipated emotions such as regret or disappointment (Baumeister, Vohs, DeWall, & Zhang, 2007; Mellers & McGraw, 2001).

Recently the recognition of affective influence in the consumer decision-making process leads to the call of reappraising traditional tourist decision-making models (Jun & Vogt, 2013; McCabe & Chen, 2015). Dual-system theories which incorporate both affective and rational factors may provide a better explanatory framework to explain consumer decision and choice. Dual-system theorists agree that the consumer decision-making process involves two systems. System 1 is experiential, automatic, intuitive and related to affective factors. System 2 is rational, analytic, reflective and related to rational thinking (Chaiken, 1980; Epstein & Pacini, 1999; Evans, 2006; Kahneman & Frederick, 2002; Lieberman, 2003; Strack & Deutsch, 2006). The final decision is made based on satisficing principle between two systems (Evans, 2006). The dual-system theories reflect how people make decisions by incorporating both fast and slow thinking (Kahneman, 2011). Neuroscience research support dual-system theories by providing evidence of two neural systems involved in decision-making: an impulsive, amygdala-dependent system for signalling the pain or pleasure of immediate prospects (i.e., system 1)and a reflective, orbitofrontal-dependent system for signalling the prospects of the future (i.e., system 2) (Bechara, Noel, & Crone, 2006).

Against this background, this paper aims to provide a comprehensive summary of what has been found regarding tourist decision-making research. In order to achieve the research objective, a state-of-the-art approach is employed to review imagery tourism literature (Grant & Booth, 2009). As state-of-the-art reviews tend to address more current matters and to offer new perspectives on the topic studied, the papers are then selected based on the authors’ assessment of their relevance and significance to advance imagery-related knowledge in tourism (Cohen et al., 2014). The remainder of this paper is hence organised into two sections. Section 1 is to summarise the research findings related to tourist decision-making. Section 2 focuses on discussing the research gaps with purposes of suggesting an agenda for future research.

2. Findings

2.1 Rational theories in tourism

The rational choice theories are based on the assumption that consumers are rational decision makers and utility maximisers. This view of “consumer-as-rational-decision-maker” has been investigated from two perspectives: the macro-perspective (i.e. general models) used to study the social-psychological context and the inputs that influence individual decisions; and the micro-perspective (i.e. operational models) for better explaining actual decision-making outcomes (McCabe & Chen, 2015). From the macro-perspective, the earliest and most influential models of consumer behaviour sought to provide a systematic understanding of the consumer buying decision for tangible, manufactured products (Engel, Kollat, & Blackwell, 1968; Howard & Sheth, 1969). According to these early studies, the decision-making process includes a series of well-defined stages: (1) recognition of need, (2) search for information, (3) evaluation of alternatives, (4) choice and (5) post-purchase (Engel et al., 1968). The entire tourist decision-making process has been similarly conceptualised as a multi-phased process: anticipation (planning and thinking about the trip), travel to the site, on-site behaviour, return travel and recollections of experiences (reflection and memory of trip) (Clawson & Knetsch, 1966). However, these macro-perspective models do not describe how consumers evaluate alternatives to make their decision. The complexity and difficulty of their operationalization have resulted in a lack of empirical support for these models (McCabe & Chen, 2015). Other criticisms of such macro-perspective models include their failure to incorporate emotional, social and symbolic influencers on consumer decision-making (Holbrook & Hirschman, 1982), as well as the social characteristics of consumer behaviour and decision-making contexts (Decrop & Kozak, 2009).

From a micro-perspective, there are three different approaches (Table 1): a normative utility approach, the prescriptive cognitive approach (theory of reasoned action and theory of planned behaviour) and the choice-set models (McCabe & Chen, 2015). The first two analyses the decision-making process as an input-output process: the normative approach considers product attributes as input and a decision as output; while the prescriptive cognitive approach uses psychological concepts (e.g. attitude, subjective norms, and behavioural control) as input and intention to purchase as the output. The third type, choice-set models, explain decisions as the result of a filtering process (Smallman & Moore, 2010). The normative and prescriptive models focus on how optimal decisions should be made while a descriptive model (e.g. choice-set) describes how consumers make decisions in a series of steps (Tamura, 2008).

Table 1: Different rational approaches in decision-making literature

 

Normative utility

Prescriptive cognitive

Choice-set

Basic assumption

Consumer follows a utility-maximisation principle.

Consumer behaviour is planned. The intention is the antecedent of behaviour.

Consumer follows a funnel-like process to narrow choices until the final decision is made

Influential theories

Expected Utility Theory (Von Neumann & Morgenstern, 1947)

Characteristic Utility Theory (Lancaster, 1966)

Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) (Fishbein & Ajzen, 1977)

Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) (Ajzen, 1991)

Choice-set theory (Howard, 1963)

Choi-set model (Woodside & Sherrell, 1977)

Choice-set model (Spiggle & Sewall, 1987)

Contribution

Explain how consumers should make decisions based on the evaluation of product attributes or characteristics

Consumer behaviour intention is influenced by their beliefs and past behaviour.

- Describe how consumer decisions are actually made

- Help marketers to define their main competitors

Limitations

Poorly explain consumer decisions under risk or uncertainty (Kahneman & Tversky, 1979)

- Neglect affective factors (Godin & Kok, 1996; Perugini & Bagozzi, 2001)

- Do not explain unplanned behaviours (i.e., impulsive purchase)

- Simplifying consumer choices by a binary logic of selecting or rejecting a destination (Decrop, 2010).

- Reasons for selecting a destination can differ considerably from reasons for rejecting a destination to the extent that actual choices may be based on a process of elimination rather than of selection (Perdue & Meng, 2006)

Application in tourism

Papatheodorou (2001)

Seddighi and Theocharous (2002)

Tussyadiah, Kono, and Morisugi (2006)

March and Woodside (2005)

Lam and Hsu (2006)

H. Han, Hsu, and Sheu (2010)

Crompton (1992)

Decrop (2010)

Sources: Summarised by the authors

As the tourist decision-making process is unlikely to fit neatly into a single decision theory, recent research tends to apply more than a decision-making theory (Sirakaya & Woodside, 2005). For example, a number of tourism studies explain tourists’ destination choice based on both the TPB and the Lancaster’s Characteristic Utility theory. Tourist attitude toward a destination is calculated by the sum of the attitudes toward experiencing the destination’s perceived attributes (e.g. the likelihood of experiencing each attribute) (Crompton, 1992; Yoo & Chon, 2008). Some aspects of Prospect Theory (Kahneman & Tversky, 1979) such as perceived risk and perceived uncertainty have been integrated into the TPB model to explain the formation of attitudes and behavioural control (Quintal, Lee, & Soutar, 2010).

Rational theories have been strongly criticised for neglecting affective factors (Gnoth, 1997; Loewenstein & Lerner, 2003; McCabe & Chen, 2015; Sirakaya & Woodside, 2005). There is neuroscience evident of the affective involvement in decision-making. Patients with orbitofrontal brain damage who cannot process emotional information, have severe impairment in judgment and decision-making in real-life (Bechara, Damasio, & Damasio, 2000; Damasio, 1994). The affect-driven theories in decision-making theories are discussed in the next section.

2.2 Affect-driven theories in tourism

In opposition to the view of “consumer-as-rational-decision-maker”, the perspective of  “consumer-as-hedonic-person” highlights the important role of affective factors in the decision-making process (Hyde et al., 1999). Two main approaches have been identified (Table 2): the affect-as-direct-cause and the affect-as-feedback (DeWall, Baumeister, Chester, & Bushman, 2015). The affect-as-direct-cause focus on explaining different influencing mechanisms of experienced emotions at the decision moment including feeling-as-information theory (Loewenstein, Weber, Hsee, & Welch, 2001; Schwarz, 1990) affect priming theory (Forgas, 1995), appraisal tendency theory (Lerner & Keltner, 2000) and the feeling-is-for-doing theory (Zeelenberg et al., 2008). The second approach (affect-as-feedback) argues that people make decisions based on the anticipation of the decision’s affective consequences (Wilson, Lisle, Kraft, & Wetzel, 1989). Important affect-as-feedback theories include regret theory (Bell, 1982; Loomes & Sugden, 1982), disappointment theory (Bell, 1985; Loomes & Sugden, 1986), subjective expected pleasure (Mellers & McGraw, 2001), and emotion-as-feedback theory (Baumeister et al., 2007).

Both the affect-as-direct-causation and the affect-as-feedback approached has provided important findings on how emotions are involved in the consumer decision-making process (Achar, So, Agrawal, & Duhachek, 2016; Lerner et al., 2015). A meta-analysis of research from these two theoretical perspectives shows that anticipated emotions may have more reliable impacts on consumer behaviour than experienced emotions (DeWall et al., 2015). The recognition of both affective and rational factors in the consumer decision-making process leads to the development of dual-system theories. This latest trend of research in decision-making literature will be reviewed in the next section.

Table 2: Affect-driven approaches in decision-making

 

Affect as direct causation

Affect as feedback

Assumption

Experienced affect (e.g., emotions, feelings) influences consumer judgment and decision-making.

Consumer decisions are made based on the anticipation of affective consequences (i.e., anticipated emotions).

Influential theories

Feelings-as-information theory (Schwarz, 1990; Schwarz & Clore, 1996)

Affect infusion model – AIM (Forgas, 1995)

Appraisal tendency theory (Lerner & Keltner, 2000)

Risk-as-feelings theory (Loewenstein et al., 2001)

Feeling-is-for-doing theory (Zeelenberg et al., 2008)

Regret theory (Bell, 1982; Loomes & Sugden, 1982)

Disappointment theory (Bell, 1985; Loomes & Sugden, 1986), Subjective expected pleasure (Mellers & McGraw, 2001)

Emotion-as-feedback theory (Baumeister et al., 2007).

 

Contribution

Explaining different mechanisms that experienced affect can influence consumer behaviour

Consumer behaviour can be guided or shaped by anticipated emotions

Limitations

If the consumer has formed an appraisal-based impression of the product, the affect that they experience subsequently has a limited impact (Yeung & Wyer, 2004).

Emotions do not necessarily lead directly to behavior (e.g., mood-freezing) (Baumeister et al., 2007)

Anticipated emotions are not the only determinants of participants’ decisions. Consumer perception of risk and others’ decisions have direct influences on individual choices independently of their mediating impact on anticipated emotions (Fong & Wyer Jr, 2003)

Application in marketing & tourism

Pham (1998)

Chang and Pham (2013)

Han, Lerner, and Keltner (2007)

Prentice (2006)

Fong and Wyer Jr (2003)

Hunter (2006)

Chun, Patrick, and MacInnis (2007)

Carrera, Caballero, and Munoz (2012)

Kim, Njite, and Hancer (2013)

Bagozzi, Belanche, Casaló, and Flavián (2016)

Sources: Summarised by the authors

2.3 Dual-system theories in tourism

According to dual-system theories, consumers make decisions based two distinct cognitive systems: system 1 is unconscious (preconscious), automatic, rapid, effortless and holistic while system 2 is conscious (rational), controlled, slow, effortful and analytic (Evans, 2008). A number of influential dual-system theories include experiential and rational systems (Epstein & Pacini, 1999), the theory of intuitive and reflective judgment (Kahneman & Frederick, 2002), heuristic and analytic systems (Evans, 2006), reflexive and reflective systems (Lieberman, 2003), reflective and impulsive systems (Strack & Deutsch, 2006), heuristic-systematic model (Chaiken & Ledgerwood, 2011). The dual-system approach is supported by neuroscience evidence of two neural systems described as an impulsive, amygdala-dependent system for signalling the pain or pleasure of immediate prospects and a reflective, orbitofrontal-dependent system for signalling the prospects of the future (Bechara et al., 2006).

Table 3: Overview of some influential dual-system theories

Name of theory

System 1

System 2

Relationship between two systems

Elaboration likelihood model (Petty & Wegener, 1999)

Peripheral route related to low-effort mechanism

Central route based on relatively extensive and effortful information processing

Default-interventionist

Experiential and rational systems (Epstein & Pacini, 1999)

Experiential system related to preconscious, rapid thinking

Rational system related to logical thinking

Parallel-competitive

Intuitive and reflective judgment (Kahneman & Frederick, 2002)

Intuitive system related to affective content

Reflective system related to abstract content based on effortful thinking

Default-interventionist

Reflexive and reflective systems (Lieberman, 2003)

X-system (reflexive) related to affect and social meaning

C-system (reflective) related to further reasoning

Default-interventionist

Heuristic and analytic systems (Evans, 2006)

Heuristic process generating representations of problem content,

Analytic process deriving judgments from these representations

Default-interventionist

Reflective and impulsive systems (Strack & Deutsch, 2006)

Impulsive system operating as a fast and automatic information processing network

Impulsive system related to rule-based reasoning

Parallel-competitive

Heuristic-systematic model (Chaiken & Ledgerwood, 2011)

Heuristic system focusing on salient and easily comprehended cues derived from well-learned judgmental shortcuts

Systematic system involving careful attention, deep thinking and intensive reasoning

Parallel-competitive

Source: Summarised by the author

Dual-system theories differ on the role of affect and the interactions between two processes described (Evans, 2008). Firstly, affective factors are explicitly (Epstein & Pacini, 1999; Evans, 2006; Kahneman & Frederick, 2002) or implicitly (Chaiken & Ledgerwood, 2011; Lieberman, 2003; Strack & Deutsch, 2006) linked to System 1. Secondly, dual-system theories can be distinguished based on their “default-interventionist” (Evans, 2006; Kahneman & Frederick, 2002; Lieberman, 2003) versus “parallel-competitive” (Chaiken, 1980; Epstein & Pacini, 1999) assumptions. The dual-system approach has received two main types of criticism: (1) there are multiple kinds of implicit processes described by different theorists and (2) not all of the proposed attributes of the two kinds of processing can be sensibly mapped into two systems as currently conceived (Evans, 2008).

There is also an increasing number of marketing & tourism studies in accordance with dual-system theories. Consumer behaviour is explained by two intervening response systems in parallel: information-processing system related to conventional Cognition-Affect-Behaviour (CAB) paradigm and experiential system related to fantasies and feelings (Holbrook & Hirschman, 1982). The Consciousness-Emotion-Value (CEV) differs from the CAB paradigm by involving three phases of consumption experience: consciousness, emotions and value (Holbrook, 1986). According to the CEV model, emotions shape value in the consumption experience. The influence of both affective and rational factors in consumer decision-making process has been studied in numerous studies by Bagozzi and collaborators (Bagozzi, Baumgartner, Pieters, & Zeelenberg, 2000; Bagozzi, Dholakia, & Basuroy, 2003; Bagozzi, Gopinath, & Nyer, 1999; Bagozzi & Pieters, 1998). The Model of Goal-Directed Behaviour (Perugini & Bagozzi, 2001) and the Model of Effortful Decisions (Bagozzi et al., 2003) incorporate anticipated emotions into the theory of planned behaviours to better explain consumer behaviour. In order to better explain tourist choices, a general model of tourist decision-making has been proposed by (McCabe, Li, & Chen, 2016) (Figure 1).

 

Figure 1: General model of tourist decision-making

 

Source: Adapted from McCabe et al. (2016)

3. DISCUSSION

The development of dual-system theories consists of the latest advancement in understanding tourist decision-making. Even though a general model of dual-system theories has been developed in tourism literature, many questions remained related to tourist involvement and the contextual factors that influence how tourists engage in one or both decision-making system as well as the role of emotions.

3.1 Tourist involvement in decision-making

The general model presented in this paper visualizes how both systems are involved in the dynamic decision-making process of tourists. It is suggested by McCabe et al. (2016) that tourist involvement play an important role in differentiate tourist engagement in System 1 or System 2. Tourists may engage System 1 which is affect-driven if their involvement is low. In contrast, if they are more likely to engage in System 2 if their involvement is high. This is because in low-involvement situation, tourists may lack of commitment to apply logic and statistics to make decisions. The level of involvement can be determined by the level of personal relevance (Jun & Vogt, 2013). However, individual differences such as the need for cognition (Cacioppo & Petty, 1982) or faith in intuition (Epstein, Pacini, Denes-Raj, & Heier, 1996) may influence tourist level of involvement in making decisions. Much further research is needed to explore how these factors influence tourist involvement which in turn determines the system employed for decision-making process. The application of experimental research can help to advance our knowledge in this area.

3.2 The role of emotions in tourist decision-making

Dual-system theories provide more support for the recognition of affective factors in tourist decision-making. There is an increasing number of studies recognising the important impact of emotions on consumer decision (Cohen, Pham, & Andrade, 2008; Hirschman & Holbrook, 1982; Holbrook, 1986; Holbrook & Hirschman, 1982). In the case of experiential products such as vacation, the connection between emotions and behaviour may be stronger and more direct than the connection between attitude and behaviour (Bagozzi, Gurhan-Canli, & Priester, 2002). emotions can impact consumer decisions directly and indirectly (Kwortnik & Ross, 2007). When emotional responses to consumer imagery are consciously experiences, they can be used as information for consumer decision-making (Greifeneder, Bless, & Pham, 2010; Loewenstein et al., 2001; Pham, 1998; Schwarz, 1990). The effects of emotions on consumer decision are more pronounced for experiential products such as vacation than utilitarian products (M. Pham, Geuens, & De Pelsmacker, 2013). In addition, emotional responses to the imagery provide a proxy to determine anticipated emotions (Gilbert & Wilson, 2007; Wilson & Gilbert, 2003, 2005). Anticipated emotions refer to affective predictions or belief (i.e. cognition) (Bagozzi, Belanche, Casaló, & Flavián, 2016; Chun et al., 2007; Hunter, 2006; Mellers et al., 1999) that guide and shape consumer decisions (Baumeister et al., 2007; Mellers & McGraw, 2001). Less conscious-experienced emotions can also engender indirect effects on consumer behaviours by mobilising analytical thinkings (Kwortnik & Ross, 2007). The appraisal tendencies theory (Han et al., 2007) and the affect-priming theory (Forgas, 1995) provide theoretical support for the indirect route of emotional influence in the model.

Even though the role of emotions and feelings have been investigated by a number of studies, more questions remained unanswered. One of the biggest questions is related to the psychological process of emotion elicitation, future research on emotions in the decision-making process is needed to fill the gap (Lerner et al., 2015). Appraisal theories have been tested and validated in psychology and marketing literature to study the phenomenon of emotions (Ellsworth, 2013; Hosany, 2011; Johnson & Stewart, 2005; Ma, Gao, Scott, & Ding, 2013; Moors, Ellsworth, Scherer, & Frijda, 2013). However, no previous research has explored appraisal variables to explain the elicitation of emotions (Zeelenberg et al., 2008) except the study of Hung and Mukhopadhyay (2012) related to agency. Hence, appraisal theories are introduced in the next section as an explanatory approach of the complex nature and process of emotions (Ellsworth & Scherer, 2003; Frijda, 1986; Lazarus, 1991; Scherer, 1984). The second question related to the interaction between integrated emotions (emotions elicited by the decision-related factors) and incidental emotions (emotions caused by contextual factors) (Lerner et al., 2015). One sunny day may put decision-makers in a good mood which in turn influence favourably their decisions.

3.3 Contextual factors that influence tourist decision-making

The application of dual-system theories in tourist behaviour research results in the necessity of investigating the factors that influence tourist engagement in different systems. Tourism researchers should focus on identifying the influencing factors in marketing and psychology literatures to test them in tourism context. Moreover, the relationship between these factors such as cognitive load, time constraints remained subjects to be investigated in future research. Another interesting research topic is how these two systems operate together.

3.4. Marketing applications of dual-system theories

Tourism is moving to become the experience-selling industry where experiential benefits such as fantasy, feelings and fun play important roles on tourist decision-making processing (Holbrook & Hirschman, 1982). In the experience economy (Pine & Gilmore, 1998), the job of tourism marketers is to deliver and manage tourist experiences instead of traditional job of promoting tourism products/services (Kim, 2017). Figure 2 shows that how tourist experiences offer more added value to tourism business than traditional product/service. In order to design and deliver tourist experiences, rational decision-making theories seem to be inadequate to explain tourist behaviours and decisions (Kwortnik & Ross, 2007; McCabe et al., 2016). The application of dual-system theories which include both rational factors and affective factors provides a better framework.

 

Figure 2: Example of the experiences spectrum of wine

Source: Tourism and Events Queensland, 2017

Tourism marketing has been also adapted to these new research findings. Traditional marketing that is designed based on rational theories try to convince potential tourists based on rational factors of tourist decision-making. However, experiential marketing which focuses on creating fantasy, enhance tourist emotions is now considered as an effective way to promote a destination and persuade potential tourists (Petrova & Cialdini, 2008). Emotions can be used as a criteria of market segmentation (Bigne & Andreu, 2004). Some DMOs have led the way of applying experiential marketing. For example, Tourism and Event Queensland have recently developed a number of “hero experience” programs which highlights different types of experiences that tourists can have during their pleasure vacations in Queensland. (Source: Teq website, 2017). These new marketing initiatives are developed based on the recognition of both rational and affective factors that can influence tourist decisions. The use of both comparative messages (rational factors) and experiential messages (afective factors) in tourism marketing can enhance the effectiveness of tourism marketing campaigns.

4. CONCLUSION

The explanatory power of rational decision-making models has been questioned in case of purchasing experiential products such as vacations (Jun & Vogt, 2013; McCabe & Chen, 2015; Pham, 1998; Prentice, 2006; Walls, Okumus, & Wang, 2011). Tourists seek fantasy, feelings and fun in their holidays (Hirschman & Holbrook, 1982; Holbrook, 1986; Holbrook & Hirschman, 1982; Litvin, 2008). These experiential aspects, in turn, have a role to play in tourist decision-making process (Decrop & Snelders, 2004; Goossens, 2000; Kwortnik & Ross, 2007; Prentice, 2006). The development of dual-system theories offers a bigger picture of how both rational and affective factors are involved in tourist decision-making. The application of dual-system theories in tourism research consists of a significant advancement in understanding tourist behaviours and results in benefitial application for DMOs. More research is still needed to better explore how these two systems interact as well as other contextual antecedents of tourist dual-system decisions.

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Website

Tourism and Event Queensland, 2017, retrieval at https://teq.queensland.com/experiences/destination-hero-experiences.

 

[1] PhD student, Griffith University, Australia

[2] Assoc.Prod.Dr., Foreign Trade University. Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.